2011 Research Showcase

The 2011 Research Showcase was held on Friday, April 8, 2011. Faculty and PhD students from the Graduate School of Library and Information Science presented short talks and posters highlighting their scholarly work. Among others, topics included text mining, data curation, social media and online communities, information retrieval, metadata, community informatics, children's literature, personal information organization and archiving, facet analysis, e-science, and information behavior.

The Research Showcase is an annual event open to campus and the general public. 

1:30-4:30pm
Friday, April 8, 2011
Graduate School of Library and Information Science
501 E. Daniel, Champaign
East Foyer and Rms. 126 and 131

Presentations
(1:30 - 3:30 pm, LIS 126) 

The 2011 Research Showcase was held on Friday, April 8, 2011. Faculty and Ph.D. students from the Graduate School of Library and Information Science presented short talks and posters highlighting their scholarly work. Among others, topics included text mining, data curation, social media and online communities, information retrieval, metadata, community informatics, children's literature, personal information organization and archiving, facet analysis, e-science, and information behavior.

The Research Showcase is an annual event open to campus and the general public. 

1:30-4:30pm
Friday, April 8, 2011
Graduate School of Library and Information Science
501 E. Daniel, Champaign
East Foyer and Rms. 126 and 131

Presentations
(1:30 - 3:30 pm, LIS 126) 

Introduction
Dean John Unsworth
MP3 Audio

The Sokol Project: Exploring the Social Nature of Personal Archiving
Lori Kendall 
MP3 Audio | Slides

Evaluating microblogging sentiments with online workers
Peter Organisciak
MP3 Audio | Slides

"Bridging the Gap Between Black and White":
Recommending Inclusive Books for Children's Library Collections, 1941-1967

Christine Jenkins and Mikki Smith
MP3 Audio | Slides

On Metadata: How Records Describe Resources
Richard J. Urban
MP3 Audio | Slides

Equipping the community media newsroom
Martin Wolske, Brant Houston, Colin Rhinesmith, and Pam Dempsey
MP3 Audio | Slides

Coordinating Multiple Collections to Interpret Literary Trends
Ted Underwood  
MP3 Audio | Slides

Data Curation and Analytics to Advance Science and Scholarship
Carole Palmer and Cathy Blake
MP3 Audio | Slides

Hitting a Moving Target: Historical language change and information retrieval
Miles Efron   
MP3 Audio | Slides

 

Posters
(3:30 - 4:30 pm, LIS 131 and E. Foyer) 

Information in Society at GSLIS
Naomi Bloch, Chris D'Arpa, Adam Kehoe, Vukoni Lupa-Lasaga, Alaine Marthaus,
Caroline Nappo, Safiya Noble, Wilhelm Peekhaus, Jessica Ratcliff, Colin Rhinesmith,
Sarah Roberts, Miriam Sweeney, and ShinJoung Yeo

Relating Data Practices, Types, and Curation Functions:
An Empirically Derived 
Framework
Melissa Cragin, Tiffany Chao, and Carole Palmer

Learning and Knowledge Exchange in Science Teaching
Wei Gao and Caroline Haythornthwaite

Academic Libraries and Student Affairs Collaborating for Student Growth and Development
Lisa Janicke Hinchliffe and Melissa Wong   

Equipping Collaborative Computing Spaces
Suzanne Im, Deven Gibbs, Shameem Rakha, Ithamar Ritz, and Martin Wolske

Extending the reach of our collective cultural heritage: The IMLS DCC Flickr Feasibility Study
Jacob Jett, Carole Palmer, Katrina Fenlon, and Zoe Chao

Measuring the Impact of Physical Design in Community Information Spaces
Adam Kehoe and Martin Wolske

Facets and Films
Kathryn La Barre

eBlackIllinois: Cultural Heritage Information Infrastructure
Noah Lenstra

Educational Graphic Novels in Korean Children's Lives
Yeo-Joo Lim

The implications of multiple access points for scholarly journals in the networked environment
Ana Lucic and Thomas Teper

Preserving Virtual Worlds II: Where in the World are Significant Properties?
Jerome McDonough

Picturing Evolution: Images and Geological Time in Science Books for Children, 1865-1956
Kate McDowell

Center for Informatics Research in Science and Scholarship
Carole Palmer, Cathy Blake and Kevin Trainor

Information-Seeking and Sharing Behaviors Among Fire Service Field Staff Instructors: A Qualitative Study
Lian Ruan

It’s a Microcosm of Life: Weaving a Web of Information and Support in an Online Breast Cancer Community
Ellen L. Rubenstein

Annotation evolution: how Web 2.0 technologies are enabling a change in annotation practice
Simone Sacchi

Innovative Tools for Community Collaboration - A History
Claudia Serbanuta and Naomi Bloch

The Center for Children's Books
Deborah Stevenson

Beyond Simply Searching the Biomedical Literature: Tools for Summarization and Drill-down, Disambiguation, and Discovery (demo)
Vetle Torvik

Informatics Moments: Digital Literacy and Social Capital in Civil Society and Peoples Everyday Lives

Kate Williams and Aiko Takazawa

Personal information organization and re-access in computer folders:
an empirical study of information workers
Hong Zhang

Presentation Abstracts 

The Sokol Project: Exploring the Social Nature of Personal Archiving
Lori Kendall 

The relatively recent study of personal archiving has tended to come from one of two perspectives: that of archivists, whose interest has primarily been in the personal documents and manuscripts likely to end up in archives; and that of researchers focusing on intersections between people and technologies, primarily in the area of digital personal archiving. Researchers from both perspectives have tended to view peoples personal archiving practices as reflecting the individual identities of the collectors. However, personal archiving practices do not simply reflect individual personal identities, but intersect with political, social, and cultural domains of meaning. This presentation draws on an analysis of a family history document created by an elderly Midwestern woman. The documents creator combined a variety of scanned and reproduced non-digital materials (including transcripted audio from videotape, old family photos and scrapbook materials, and text from a speech initially recorded on 3x5 notecards) into an original creation that has been stored and distributed in both digital and non-digital forms. I will discuss how this document illustrates several aspects of the social nature of personal archiving, by looking at both the social contexts within which the document was created, and the social identities it both creates and reflects.

Evaluating microblogging sentiments with online workers
Peter Organisciak

The classification of sentiment is a unique challenge for text analysis. Study in the area returns weaker results than in other classification tasks. A reason for this is the complexity of interlinked intra-document sentiments, a problem for not only the effectiveness of mining techniques but also for the annotation of training data. This study explored a correction to this problem by generating a much less complex corpus for sentiment analysis from collected and annotated microblogging messages. The goal of this study was to find the best text mining approach for determining the tone of a sentence-length political sentiment, through the study of a corpus of tweets with a subset classified by humans. This presentation will focus on the results of the first step of the study, the generation of a training corpus. Messages were classified according to sentiment multiple times, independently by anonymous online workers. An iterative ranking algorithm was developed to determine confidence in individual ratings and the workers making them. This showed encouraging improvement in reconciling inter-coder variance over a baseline measure of selection by majority rating. This presentation will also briefly describe the efficacy of classification methods run on the corpus and early findings of a follow-up study measuring the equivalence of ranked online workers to trusted traditional workers.

"Bridging the Gap Between Black and White":
Recommending Inclusive Books for 
Children's Library Collections, 1941-1967
Christine Jenkins and Mikki Smith

As public library service to children began to flourish at the turn of the last century, librarian-created lists of recommended books proliferated. In 1909 the enterprising Wilson Publishing Company compiled 20 such lists to create the first edition of Children's Catalog (CC), a bibliography of 1,000 recommended books for children's library collections. The Wilson catalogs quickly became key selection tools for librarians --indeed, the books listed in CC became the de facto children's canon throughout the 20th Century. The CC was not without its critics, however, as very few of the titles included in the CC represented authors, illustrators, or characters that were not white native-born Americans. In the early 1940s this problem began to be addressed by two African-American children's librarians -- Charlemae Rollins (Chicago Public Library) and Augusta Baker (New York Public Library), who created landmark bibliographies of recommended titles that included selection guides with evaluation criteria for illustration and text using positive and negative examples drawn from popular children's books, including many in the CC. Rollins We Build Together (WBT) (NCTE, 1941,1948,1967) and Baker's Books about Negro Life for Children (BNLC) (NYPL, 1946,1949,1957,1961,1963) played an influential role in developing more inclusive library collections for children. This research began as a comparative examination of the books included in contemporaneous editions of WBT, BNLC, and CC to identify patterns of inclusion and exclusion. Which of the titles recommended by Rollins and Baker were included in CC? Which were not? Conversely, which titles with negative evaluations from Rollins and Baker appeared in CC? Which did not? Our presentation focuses on the titles noted in WBT and BNLC to gain a clearer picture of the shift in evaluation criteria as applied to depictions of race in mainstream and even canonical children's books of the 1940s. The longer project will trace the presence and/or absence of these titles over time in CC and in the collections of four public libraries in Midwestern communities from the late 19th to the mid-20th Centuries.

On Metadata: How Records Describe Resources
Richard J. Urban

Bibliographic records -- including metadata -- are often defined as data that describes or is about resources. The function of such records is to help users identify, select, and obtain the resources that meet their information needs. In pursuit of these goals, the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative introduced a fundamental principle, known as the 1:1 Principle that requires records to describe "one, and only one resource." But how is it that metadata comes to describe anything, let alone one thing? How can we systematically tell when metadata describes more than one thing? To answer these questions, my research has turned towards similar problems of description found in natural language utterances. Like definite descriptions, metadata bears a special referential relationship to a single coherent information resource -- making it more than just a small document and more than a set of data values. Metadata that expresses contrary propositions about that resource can therefore be identified as a 1:1 Principle violation. This presentation will apply this theory of metadata description to IMLS DCC cultural heritage records that appear to reference resources with both physical and digital properties.

Equipping the community media newsroom
Martin Wolske, Brant Houston, Colin Rhinesmith, and Pam Dempsey

This presentation will report on work related to a recently funded Office of the Vice Chancellor for Public Engagement project, "Equipping Citizen Journalists," which is bringing together key ongoing and recent projects by CII and the Department of Journalism to address the disparity in effective use of technologies for information gathering, reporting, and information and news presentation that currently exists in north Champaign and East St. Louis. Four public computing centers have been identified as pilot sites to serve as community media newsrooms in these communities. The presentation will report on ways faculty, staff, and students from LIS and Journalism are coming together to work with professionals and pilot sites to adapt community media and citizen journalism programming to the current needs of residents in the marginalized communities of north Champaign and East St. Louis. Issues of controlled vocabularies, wayfinding, preservation and archiving will also be considered to assure information is not only produced but also accessible in a way that is sustainable and impactful.

Coordinating Multiple Collections to Interpret Literary Trends
Ted Underwood  

In the early 19th Century, British writers argued that the preceding generation had relied too heavily on Latinate words, and suggested that the language should be restored to its native roots. But the significance of this argument remains unclear. Had the proportion of Latinate words in print really changed? And if so, was the etymological dimension of the shift the dimension that mattered? Or was the debate about Latinate diction a proxy for some broader conflict between competing models of literary refinement? This paper describes an approach to these questions that relies on identifying groups of words whose frequencies changed in closely correlated ways. Because shifts in diction involve multiple genres and unfold over a period of a century or more, they need to be characterized in a large collection. But to understand why these changes happened, the patterns that emerge may need to be analyzed in a smaller collection with richer metadata. The SEASR environment developed by the Automated Learning Group at NCSA is making it possible to coordinate these two kinds of inquiry. The question of Latinate diction may turn out to be a useful model for similar literary applications of text-mining, where scholars need to characterize a trend that isn't easily approached as a problem of classification or semantic analysis.

Data Curation and Analytics to Advance Science and Scholarship
Carole Palmer and Cathy Blake

The development of cyberinfrastructure for research and scholarship is a high-stakes endeavor. Not only is it extremely costly, but expectations are inflated. The predictions we hear about the digital, networked information environment, and its ability to seamlessly support data-intensive, interdisciplinary, collaborative research, are based on a reasonable understanding of changing technology. But, they suffer from a superficial understanding of the interplay among emerging technologies and the materials and practice of science and scholarship.

Our presentation for the GSLIS Research Showcase will discuss contributions being made by the Center for Informatics Research in Science & Scholarship (CIRSS) to the advancement of e-research through its work in the areas of Data Curation and Data Analytics. As researchers do more and more of their work online in the Google-centric Web environment, curated collections will become increasingly important as anchors for meaningful engagement with digital information. Moreover, analytical approaches and tools will play a larger part in managing and interpreting the extensive bodies of literature and data required for scientists and scholars to make progress. However, to advance science and scholarship we need both data and an accurate understanding of the human processes that surround discovery. Our talk will highlight the synergies between research questions, methods, and findings from a range of CIRSS faculty and student projects and discuss the implications of this work for the information professions

Hitting a Moving Target: Historical language change and information retrieval
Miles Efron   

Massive book digitization projects such as Google Books offer readers new ways to interact with textual information. The full-text indexing that accompanies digitization lets us search for information, quickly delivering putatively relevant book passages for our attention. However, keyword-based information retrieval fails to meet the challenge posed by repositories such as Google Books, due in large part to language change. In this talk, I will describe ongoing research aimed at improving our ability to find information across bodies of temporally diverse text. A person researching the origins and history of the proverb "all that glitters is not gold" would like to see passages containing the saying itself. But he or she is also likely to be interested in Chaucer's verse, "alle is not golde that glareth" or Lydgate's "alle is not golde that shewyth goldishe hewe." Since the 15th Century (and indeed before that), English has changed, frustrating the methods of information retrieval that serve us well in contemporary text. The subject of this talk is a novel statistical framework that allows searches posed in, say, 21st-Century English to retrieve texts written in Middle English, Early Modern English, as well as familiar modern idioms.

 

Poster Abstracts

Information in Society at GSLIS
Naomi Bloch, Chris D'Arpa, Adam Kehoe, Vukoni Lupa-Lasaga, Alaine Marthaus,
Caroline Nappo, Safiya Noble, Wilhelm Peekhaus, Jessica Ratcliff, Colin Rhinesmith,
Sarah 
Roberts, Miriam Sweeney, and ShinJoung Yeo

In 2007, Associate Dean Linda Smith and Professor Dan Schiller were awarded a multi-year grant from the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) to develop the Information in Society concentration at GSLIS. Information in Society is a specialization within the doctoral program that focuses on the societal impacts of information and information technologies with an eye to preparing fellows for research and teaching positions in library and information science programs. Grant funding supports doctoral fellows, post-doctoral fellows, a speaker series, lunch discussions, and conference attendance. Information in Society fellows’ research is diverse encompassing many aspects of library and information science including biotechnology, library and information history, information policy, community and social informatics, and political economy of information. This poster will provide an overview of the work of fellows and post docs including research, teaching, conference participation, informal and formal cross-disciplinary discussions, and teaching supported by the IMLS grant. It will highlight individual as well as collective research projects done by fellows and post docs, with implications for the future directions of critical scholarship, research, and pedagogy in library and information science. The poster will elaborate on information first presented at the 2010 GSLIS Research Showcase.

Relating Data Practices, Types, and Curation Functions:
An Empirically Derived 
Framework
Melissa Cragin, Tiffany Chao, and Carole Palmer

There is a growing base of evidence from which we can begin to specify the range and combination of data practices and data types, which will configure and constrain data management, and use of publically shared collections (Cragin, Palmer, Carlson, & Witt, 2010). Variations in data handling may be rooted in disciplinary conventions or more local structures and processes; and, they are manifest in how methods are applied (Pritchard, Anand, & Carver, 2005) and the nuance of analysis and interpretation. These practices, along with distinct data characteristics, have tremendous implications for emerging data resources and curation infrastructures. However, the relationships among data characteristics, scientific work practices, and curation activities are still not well understood, and there is a need for a conceptual framework for mapping relationships and dependencies between scientific practices and curation functions. Our current work with the Data Conservancy serves as the basis for investigating research data practices, and modeling these relationships. We present here the Data Curation Framework, an empirically-derived taxonomic view of arrays of scientific data practices, types of data produced and used, and associated curation activities. It is intended to be a flexible device that might be used to identifying potential associations and dependencies among the concepts, for representing curation requirements, and facilitating description and assessment of existing or planned curation infrastructure and services. As new curation systems are developed, the framework can be applied more broadly to support assessments of curation services and full accounts of deposited data sets and the associated data products required to maintain the coherence and context of complex data collections.

Learning and Knowledge Exchange in Science Teaching
Wei Gao and Caroline Haythornthwaite

This poster presents findings from a study of how social networks support information sharing in support of science teaching and what kinds of information are shared in support of new and successful science teaching practices. The study was begun to explore both relational and structural aspects of networks relating to the dissemination and adoption of science teaching practices. The goals in this initial work were to gain a baseline understanding of teacher networks, understand the context in which these networks and actors within them operate, understand the relational needs for learning about science teaching, and explore attitudes and practices of adoption and dissemination of innovations. Results indicate that ties between teachers are formed on the basis of professional teaching practice, i.e., the enactment of content into the practice of classroom exercises, and that different types of learning relations create bonds between science teachers. Future work will explore more fully how social networks of information and entrepreneurial exchange meld with the professional character of teaching, with due attention to content and practice.

Academic Libraries and Student Affairs Collaborating for Student Growth and Development
Lisa Janicke Hinchliffe and Melissa Wong   

Awareness of the importance of outside-of-class learning has continued to increase in higher education as well as concern for whole student development and integrative learning opportunities. The emergence of learning commons and other collaborative ventures between academic libraries and student affairs demonstrates the power of partnering to address student learning and development. Partnerships between libraries and academic departments or academic services are often treated in the literature. The edited volume that is the basis of this presentation fills a gap by exploring how academic librarians and student affairs professionals can expand their reach through collaborative programming and other joint efforts. The book explores the opportunities to create stronger campus environments for student growth and development inherent in library and student affairs collaborations. Chapters are authored by writing teams that are composed of at least one student affairs professional and at least one librarian. The goal is to demonstrate the potential for shared vision that can be used to further the value inherent in such collaborative approaches in order to influence professional practice and positively impact student learning and growth.

Equipping Collaborative Computing Spaces
Suzanne Im, Deven Gibbs, Shameem Rakha, Ithamar Ritz, and Martin Wolske

Public computing has traditionally been relegated to spaces that are distinct from where collaboration occurs. Computer labs are often placed in separate rooms with computers arranged so that users are facing the wall or an instructor rather than each other. By comparison, a quintessential collaborative computing space can be found in the café, where public computing is integrated into the social dynamics of the space. While decades of research in disciplines such as architecture and environmental psychology have produced a wealth of information on how to effectively design spaces that best serve the designated uses of a space, these principles have not been widely applied to the design of public computing centers. During Summer 2010, students from a range of disciplines came together as part of LIS490ST to define a set of principles for equipping collaborative spaces, and to use these principles to create a redesign proposal for the public computing spaces at the Mary Brown Center in East St. Louis. The nice but traditional public computing space at the center is heavily used by both adults and youth and serves as a rich pilot site to apply these principles. This poster presents the results of the studio course and also the results of the implemented redesign of the center. A sister poster by Adam Kehoe and Martin Wolske will present considerations for methods to measure the impact of space designs.

Extending the reach of our collective cultural heritage: The IMLS DCC Flickr Feasibility Study
Jacob Jett, Carole Palmer, Katrina Fenlon, and Zoe Chao

In 2009, the IMLS Digital Collections and Content (DCC) initiative undertook the Flickr Feasibility Study (FFS) to test the viability of supporting sharing of cultural heritage content in the Web 2.0 environment. This poster provides an overview of the methods and workflows applied in FFS research and development, and selected results covering: 1) challenges and benefits of providing the intermediary service, and variance across different institutions; and 2) user interactions with DCC/Flickr content -- how user-generated tags and comments can enhance metadata, and use trends can inform collection development priorities. To represent the breadth of the DCC service constituency, six institutions ranging from small public libraries to large university libraries and archives were identified for participation. Across these institutions, diverse collections of historical photographs, ranging from World War II images to popular culture and local history images, were selected for contribution to Flickr. Each institution provided a different and valuable perspective on conditions for participation and the aggregator’s role. The results demonstrate that providing this service for museums, libraries, and archives can be a natural extension of aggregation activities. While the role is complicated by the varying requirements of different kinds of institutions, analysis of user interactions can guide both collection development and building of communities of interest around cultural heritage collections.

Measuring the Impact of Physical Design in Community Information Spaces
Adam Kehoe and Martin Wolske

Community information and collaboration spaces like libraries and public computing centers face myriad challenges in designing effective physical environments due to their complexity and diversity. This poster explores several methods for measuring the impact of physical design decisions in information spaces. The central aim of these methods is to account for how physical design influences activity in information spaces of all kinds. The overarching goal of the poster is to demonstrate the place of measurement and analysis in the design life-cycle, and to connect the design process into a broader view of community informatics. This poster demonstrates measurement methods that are helpful for both researchers and practitioners interested in developing a data-driven understanding of the role of space in community informatics.

Facets and Films
Kathryn La Barre

This poster presents an overview of the content analytical methods and facet analytical framework for an ongoing project being conducted by Kathryn La Barre (University of Illinois) and Rosa Ins de Novais Cordeiro (Universidade Federal Fluminense). The Facets and Films project seeks to address a gap in the contemporary literature about providing enhanced access to digital film repositories. By drawing upon lessons learned in the Folktales, Facets and FRBR project, this effort extends the content analytical methods from the Folktales project. This poster offers preliminary insight into facets that are unique to films and those which are common across domains. One distinctive aspect of this project is the focus on cross-cultural comparisons, as the research design considers similarities and divergences of desired access features as identified by a small group of American and Brazilian students.

eBlackIllinois: Cultural Heritage Information Infrastructure
Noah Lenstra

This poster reports on ongoing research investigating the contours and shape of the state of Illinois' African-American cultural heritage information infrastructure from the perspective of community informatics. A sample of 234 African-American cultural heritage institutions -- including libraries, archives, museums, projects, cultural centers, events and historic sites -- from 50 counties across Illinois was amassed. This sample was analyzed to parse out some of factors that contribute both to the digital representation of these cultural heritage institutions and their digitization of community cultural heritage information. We seek to examine how forces both external and internal to African-American communities, or bridging and bonding social capital, across Illinois contribute to the shaping of this African-American cultural heritage cyberinfrastructure. One finding from this study is that the genealogical movement has played a critical role in the digitization of African-American community cultural heritage. This study is contextualized within the eBlackIllinois research project to study African-American community interactions with digital technology. Future research will continue to study this sample, investigating how the digitization of community cultural heritage fits within the larger movement to embed digital technologies into community life.

Educational Graphic Novels in Korean Children's Lives
Yeo-Joo Lim

Educational Graphic Novels (EGN) are recognized as an independent genre in Korea. Hwang defines EGNs are comic books that are made in a popular format to support learning useful information, to cultivate learning motivation in diverse topics, and thus guide readers to more effective education (p.5). In general, EGNs explain facts and provide information through the conversations or narrations of the characters. Many EGNs have very similar shapes as each other: 6.9 x 9.9 inch (B5 size) and the thicknesses vary. This is not a strict rule, but a convention. Although teachers and librarians disapprove of comics in general, they tend to be more generous when it comes to EGNs, because they believe in the educational aspect. However, it is not always the case. Still many teachers and librarians are concerned about the quality and authenticity of the content of EGNs. Also, many librarians hesitate to include them in their collections. In spite of all these worries, however, children just love them. In this research, I look at the uses of EGNs in children’s daily lives; the reasons of EGNs sudden and explosive popularity in Korea; and the meaning of EGN for different groups of people -- teachers, librarians, and children themselves. In order to explain these research questions, I use three different methods: (1) content analysis of EGNs; (2) group discussions with children; and (3) interviews with teachers and librarians. Several EGN titles will be deliberately selected to be discussed with children, based on the popularity, representativeness, and participating children’s reading level.

The implications of multiple access points for scholarly journals in the networked environment
Ana Lucic and Thomas Teper

We are trying to determine the factors that may have an influence on how many full-text access points a journal will have in the networked environment. Using data available through JISC Academic Database Assessment Tool website (jisc-adat.com) and the Journal Citation Reports database, we have established the content overlap for journals in 41 science and 20 social science disciplines in four full-text, multidisciplinary scholarly databases: Academic Search Premier, Academic OneFile, Academic Search Complete, and Wilson. We found a significant correlation between the degree of overlap and the journal impact factor for journals in 23 science and 8 social science disciplines. The implication is that in a large number of disciplines a higher journal impact factor is correlated to a higher number of access points. Library and information science journals ranked through the Journal Citation Report database (65), however, did not show a significant correlation between these two variables. In the next stage of our project we are focusing on the methods of measuring the real impact of multiple electronic access points on the visibility, accessibility, and influence of scholarly journals in the library and information science discipline.

Preserving Virtual Worlds II: Where in the World are Significant Properties?
Jerome McDonough

Preserving Virtual Worlds I was an investigation into the preservation of digital games and interactive fiction funded by the Library of Congress’ NDIIP Progam. This project focused on determining the issues specific to digital games which make them difficult to preserve, and experimenting with contemporary metadata and data modeling standards to determine their capability to support recording the information necessary to preserve these unique, interactive forms of art. While Preserving Virtual Worlds was successful in its original goals, it raised several new research questions, including:

• What properties of games are considered significant by game developers, game players and archivists; and
• What factors need to be considered in determining which preservation strategy best preserves those significant properties.

Preserving Virtual Worlds II is investigating these questions using a two-phase project.

Picturing Evolution: Images and Geological Time in Science Books for Children, 1865-1956
Kate McDowell

Evolution has been a controversial topic for children ever since the Scopes Trial in 1925, and while other scholars have evaluated how evolution changed in textbook content and school contexts, little work has been done to assess this topic in science trade books in public library children’s collections. This poster will analyze visual images that served to explicate the concept of evolution in terms of geological time, selected from children’s science books recommended in Children’s Catalog from 1865 to 1946. Exemplar illustrations range from images of the ascent of man, which appeared in Van Loons 1922 Newbery medal winning book The Story of Mankind, to the more nuanced image of geological eras and corresponding predominate mammals, as in the 1955 book The First Mammals by William Scheele. This research is part of a larger project exploring publication trends in relation to the 1925 Scopes Monkey trial. An earlier chapter, forthcoming in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Medicine in Print Culture (University of Wisconsin Press), explored publication on this topic prior to the Scopes Trial. A current paper in progress explores how evolution did or did not appear in children’s collections, through the holdings of the five public libraries that Wayne Wiegand compiled, known at the Main Street Public Libraries database. This poster will present visual data and analysis that contributes to an historical understanding of how the controversial topic of evolution was depicted in science books in children’s public library collections.

Center for Informatics Research in Science and Scholarship
Carole Palmer, Cathy Blake and Kevin Trainor

The GSLIS Center for Informatics Research in Science and Scholarship (CIRSS) studies the information lifecycle in the contexts of science and scholarship. Center members contribute to our understanding of how data curation, information modeling, and data analytics can enable scientists and scholars to leverage digital information resources. CIRSS members have expertise in digital preservation, interview methods, information retrieval, data and text mining, knowledge discovery, ubiquitous systems, collaborative systems, socio-technical systems, author disambiguation, persuasive technologies, reading behaviors, information modeling, scientific publishing, institutional repository development, cultural heritage collections, gaming, social networking and digital music retrieval and evaluation. Funding partners include Google, the National Endowment for the Humanities, the National Science Foundation, The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, the Library of Congress, the Environmental Change Institute, and the Institute for Museum and Library Services. 

Information-Seeking and Sharing Behaviors Among Fire Service Field Staff Instructors: A Qualitative Study
Lian Ruan

Fire service field staff instructors seek and share information and use information sources during their instructional work of teaching, training, and curriculum development. This study is the first attempt to study their information-seeking and sharing behaviors. Twenty-five fire service instructors who are field staff instructors at the Fire Academy were recruited to participate in the study. Semi-structured interviews as primary data along with secondary data were employed and examined to answer the research questions. The increasing complexity of the fire service requires firefighters to continually hone their skills and improve their knowledge of various hazards through training. This study’s findings reveal that the field staff instructor participants rely extensively on multiple types of information sources, while seeking and sharing information during the instructional process. These sources include formal/institutional, informal/personal and group network-mediated sources of information. This study identifies three collaborative information-seeking forms of joint, tag team, and intra-group, and categorizes sequences of information activities the instructor participants undertake. It also characterizes their unique attributes as information seekers. Fire service knowledge structures of KSA -- (Knowledge [cognitive], Skills [psychomotor] and Affective [attitude]) -- influence the changing needs of instructor participants, define the boundaries of information sources in these three required domain areas that firefighters learn and train, and dictate multiple types of information sources that are used and needed by the instructor participants. The dynamic nature and uncertainty of the fire service business as well as the task complexity are basic catalysts for the instructor participants’ information-seeking and sharing behaviors, which motivate them to keep seeking the best piece of information to ensure the safety of firefighters. The Recognition-Primed Decision model leads instructor participants toward a heavy reliance on experiential knowledge. Furthermore, the selection of information sources is determined by the quality of the source, and multiple types of sources of information are constantly integrated to meet the field staff instructors constantly changing needs. This study revises and expands Leckie's model of information-seeking of professionals.

It’s a Microcosm of Life: Weaving a Web of Information and Support in an Online Breast Cancer Community
Ellen L. Rubenstein

Despite its prevalence and visibility, receiving a diagnosis of breast cancer is a frightening experience for patients, family, and friends. Those diagnosed immediately face multiple treatment options, prognoses, and future life choices. They are likely to become confused, anxious, and uncertain about how to navigate treatment and prepare themselves and loved ones for the experience of breast cancer. Through this study I sought to understand how the interactions among members of an online breast cancer community impact the ways that people exchange and use information, provide social support, and form community. My overarching research questions were: 1) What is the role of online social support for people dealing with illness? and 2) Does participation in an online support group influence health decisions and practices of its members, and, if so, how? Related issues include: Why do people seek online help for breast cancer? How does participating in an online group help people navigate through illness? What kinds of information and social support exchanges occur? And, what is the meaning of the group in relation to participants everyday lives and for the long term? Using participation-observation, 37 interviews, and analysis of the online archives, my findings show that online interactions with others who have experienced similar illness trajectories have a profound impact on how people approach health care problems as well as other aspects of their lives. Among the participants in this online community, there is an inextricable connection between information and social support that allows people to build up trust and become comfortable with each other in multiple ways. Information exchange is enhanced through the combination of weak and strong ties present in the same online place, offering benefits that provide access to a wide range of information related to breast cancer, other health issues, and everyday life. This research also shows that online health information exchanges in supportive environments can evolve into lasting relationships that transcend information exchange.

Annotation evolution: how Web 2.0 technologies are enabling a change in annotation practice
Simone Sacchi

Are Web 2.0 tools and technologies changing how and why scholars annotate their research sources? We begin to answer this question by assessing current technology and tools that support new functions for one of the most common scholarly research activity: taking notes. The results suggest a new approach to personalized information retrieval.

Innovative Tools for Community Collaboration - A History
Claudia Serbanuta and Naomi Bloch

This poster, based on research in progress, presents the socio-technical history of a 14-year-long Web project focused on supporting community collaborative work, developed at GSLIS. The Inquiry Page began in 1996 as a simple Web form that helped a group of educators to document their inquiry process, and became a place where the writing, reflecting, and sharing of programs helped to connect several learning communities. True to inquiry theory, this tool grew over time based on its users’ inquiries. Serving small communities, teachers from around the world, university classes, research projects, and individuals in a time when brainstorming software was scarce and unfriendly, the Inquiry Page grew into the Community Inquiry Lab (iLabs), a more complex Web-tool. The new tool offered features like text editing, webpage making, a document center, sharing options for group collaboration, and a calendar. The current version uses Drupal, an open-source platform, and tries to continue its legacy of serving different communities. The inquiry-based approach was not only present in the tools interface but also in its construction. iLabs was developed and sustained by faculty and students, and a number of campus units were involved in its functioning. That brought in a rich variety of perspectives on community tools and diverse programming and managerial skills. The poster will present the way in which an LIS-based Web tool developed, supporting different communities within the university as well as outside it. It explores the advantages and challenges of using and managing online collaboration tools.

The Center for Children's Books
Deborah Stevenson

The Center for Children's Books at GSLIS is a research center with additional interests in education and service. Our mission is to facilitate the creation and dissemination of exemplary and progressive research and scholarship related to youth-focused resources, literature, and librarianship. In addition to pursuing our own projects, we support faculty research and provide opportunities for sharing current scholarship. We also support students, librarians, and educators by providing the use of our extensive children's literature collection, sponsoring and participating in children's literature-related events, and offering additional opportunities for enrichment and professional development. As the center of a thriving regional research community in youth services and literature, the CCB draws scholars from multiple disciplines and universities to its workshops, projects, and lectures, and our affiliates reach scholars in academic fields including library science, English literature, education, and history, educators at the primary and secondary level, and the general public.

Informatics Moments: Digital Literacy and Social Capital in Civil Society and Peoples Everyday Lives
Kate Williams and Aiko Takazawa

The informatics moment is a moment when a person seeks help in using some digital technology that is new to them. This paper examines the informatics moment in people’s everyday lives as they sought help at the branch public library. Four types of literacy were involved: basic literacy (reading and writing); computer literacy (for instance, use of a mouse, buying a computer), library literacy (for instance, navigating online catalogs and databases), and domain literacy (most commonly and urgently, looking for work in a world where practically all job postings and applications are online). Quite often more than one of these literacies is involved at one time. Social capital is also associated with many of these informatics moments: people seek help from those with enough skill, close at hand, approachable, and familiar, and they collaborate with others in their networks to do so. These findings can inform better practice regarding a library service that is demanding and not yet well conceptualized or even definitively included in the library budget or in the library school curriculum, even in community informatics courses. Several libraries carry out this service by partnerships, including with LIS programs. While this study collected data in several branches of Chicago Public Library, informatics moments happen wherever and whenever someone gets help with a task that involves some digital technology they are stuck on. Understanding the informatics moment could accelerate people’s (and society’s) anxious transition to a more inclusive digital age.

Personal information organization and re-access in computer folders:
an empirical study of information workers
Hong Zhang

The current hierarchical folder system on personal computers has long been criticized for its limitations that can cause difficulties when people try to organize and re-find information, e.g., the inability to do multiple classification. As the result, new and sometimes radically different prototypes such as topical, temporal, and spatial metaphors have been proposed as alternative systems. On the other hand, many empirical studies over decades have shown that people prefer browsing and use searching only as a last resort, even when new advanced technologies are available. Recent studies also found that there are some advantages with the current folder system, and certain features usually deemed as drawbacks sometimes seem to be beneficial to users. The seemingly contradictory findings demonstrate the complexity and subtlety, as well as our limited understanding of personal information organization and retrieval behavior in computer folders. Improved understanding is needed on how people use the hierarchical folder systems and where and how it is inadequate before we discard folders as an outdated relic. Personal information organization and retrieval behavior deserves further investigation especially at this point when personal information management has entered the public domain of general information management with the social computing technology, and at the same time traditional information organization systems are questioned both within and beyond personal computers. This poster reports the findings of an empirical study investigating two groups of information workers' organization and re-access behavior on personal computers.